Some cool plastic tooling china images:
Xatarra i xinet
Image by art_es_anna
LA ALDEA CHINA QUE CAMBIÓ ARROZ POR CHATARRA.
El 80% de lo habitantes de Guiyu sobreviven gracias al desguace de artículos electrónicos poniendo en riesgo su salud
Un niño rodeado de escombros de cables y basura electrónica. EFE.
Efe, Pekín (China)
Los habitantes de Guiyu, en la desarrollada costa china, han abandonado el cultivo del arroz como medio de vida por un negocio mucho más rentable pero implacable con su salud y el medio ambiente: el reciclaje de la basura electrónica del resto del mundo.
El 70% de los desechos electrónicos del planeta están en China y buena parte de ellos llegan, en violación de la Convención de Basilea, desde los países desarrollados hasta el puerto de Nanhai, en la provincia suroriental de Cantón.
Desde allí, una red ilegal de importadores los transportan a la pequeña localidad de Guiyu.
Entre colinas de teclados, cables y placas, hombre, mujeres y niños funden y destripan restos de artículos electrónicos, sobre todo ordenadores, sin apenas protección, lo que les convierte en presa fácil de las 700 sustancias tóxicas incluidas en esos objetos.
Con las manos desnudas, el 80% de los 150.000 habitantes de Guiyu buscan materiales como cobre, plástico o acero, que luego venden a los mercaderes de segunda mano.
"Muchos emigrantes rurales han llegado hasta Guiyu atraídos por unos salarios de entre dos y tres dólares la hora, muy superiores a lo que ganan en el campo", explica Jamie Choi, responsable de campaña de Greenpeace. "Tienen que elegir entre tener suficiente dinero para vivir o su salud", añade.
Nocivo para la salud
En este gran vertedero de la sociedad de la información apenas se usan máscaras y la herramienta más avanzada tiene forma de taladro, afirma.
Los perjuicios para la salud tienen un exponente demoledor: el 80% de los niños de Guiyu presentan niveles altos de plomo en la sangre, lo que causa en daños en el sistema nervioso y reproductor, según constató un estudio de la cercana Universidad de Shantou.
"Los niños, sobre todo los hijos de los emigrantes, se dedican a hacer las labores más sencillas. Están 24 horas trabajando, respirando, jugando con los materiales peligrosos", explica Choi.
Entre tanto, Wu Yuping, de la Administración Estatal de Medio Ambiente (SEPA), subraya que "no se puede encontrar agua potable en 50 kilómetros a la redonda", debido a que las sustancias tóxicas se amontonan en las riberas del río y se filtran de forma subterránea.
En 1994, la Convención de Basilea, suscrita por casi todos los países desarrollados menos Estados Unidos, prohibió la exportación de desechos peligrosos de los países ricos a los pobres, incluidos los destinados al reciclaje, pero su aplicación ha mostrado muchas lagunas.
"Greenpeace ha visto barcos que parten de Holanda a China, cargados de residuos electrónicos", dice Choi.
Y muchos llegan a Guiyu.
De vuelta al ‘primer mundo’
Entre las labores cotidianas está la de desarmar placas madre en un hornillo casero de carbón en busca de los codiciados chips, que contienen oro.
O también fundir las carcasas de los ordenadores para transformar el tóxico PVC en piezas que se destinan a objetos que, curiosamente, vuelven a acabar en el mundo occidental: las flores de plástico.
Cada año el planeta genera entre 20 y 50 millones de toneladas de desechos electrónicos, de acuerdo con datos del Programa de Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente:el 80% acaba en Asia y de ese porcentaje el 90% llega a China.
Aunque Guiyu es el más célebre, hay otros vertederos de este tipo en Longtan y Tali, también en Cantón, en Taizhou (provincia de Zhejiang) y en la vecina Hunan, según alerta la SEPA.
Si bien la mayoría de los desechos proceden de los países ricos, China genera cada año 1,1 millones de toneladas, una cifra que se multiplica a medida que aumenta el nivel de vida.
"En los suburbios de ciudades como Pekín o Tianjin hay pequeñas chabolas dedicadas a desarmar objetos electrónicos que acaban en Guiyu", subraya Choi.
El Gobierno estudia un proyecto de ley para que los fabricantes de ordenadores, televisores, refrigeradores, lavadoras y aires acondicionados chinos se responsabilicen de reciclar sus productos.
Esa medida responde a las peticiones de los ecologistas, que consideran que son los fabricantes quienes tienen que asumir la responsabilidad por sus productos.
Sin embargo, dicen, no habrá solución definitiva sin pasos como el dado el año pasado por la Unión Europea: prohibir el uso de plomo, mercurio, cadmio, cromo hexavalente, bifenilos policromados y éter de bifenilo policromado en los aparatos electrónicos.
Hake me hizo reflexionar sobre este tema :
THE CHINESE VILLAGE THAT CHANGED RICE BY SCRAP IRON. 80% of the inhabitants of Guiyu survive thanks to the electronic report taking apart putting in threat their wellness a boy surrounded by rubbish of cables and electronic sweepings. EFE. Efe, Beijing (Chinese) the inhabitants of Guiyu, in the created Chinese coast, has left the culture of the rice like means of life by a lucrative but a lot a lot more implacable organization with their overall health and the medio.ambiente: the recycling of the electronic sweepings of the rest of the world. 70% of the electronic remainders of the planet are in China and excellent portion of them arrives, in violation of the Convention of Basel, from the countries developed to the port of Nanhai, in the suroriental province of Corner. From there, an illegal network of importers transports them to the modest locality of Guiyu. Amongst hills of keyboards, cables and plates, man, ladies and young children discovered and gut rest of electronic articles, mainly computer systems, with out hardly protection, which turns to them simple prey of the 700 toxic substances including in these objects. With the naked hands, 80% of the 150,000 inhabitants of Guiyu look for components as it receives, plastic or steel, that quickly sell the merchants of second hand. "Many rural emigrants have arrived till Guiyu attracted by wages from between two and 3 dollars the hour, very superior to which they win in the field", explains Jamie Choi, individual in charge of campaign of Greenpeace. "They must select between obtaining enough income to live or its well being", adds. Injurious for the well being In this great garbage dump of the society of the info as quickly as masks are utilized and the tool much more outpost has drill type, affirms. The damages for the wellness have a demolishing exponent: 80% of the young children of Guiyu present/display high lead levels in the blood, which lead to in damages in the nervous and reproductive technique, according to stated a study of the near University of Shantou. "the young children, mostly the kids of the emigrants, dedicate themselves to make the workings simplest. 24 hours are working, breathing, playing with the dangerous materials ", explains Choi. In the meantime, Wu Yuping, of the State Administration of Medio.ambiente (IT KNOWS), emphasizes that "potable water in 50 kilometers to the round 1 can not be identified", simply because the toxic substances crowd in the shores of the river and they filter of underground type. In 1994, the Convention of Basel, subscribed by virtually all the developed nations less United States, prohibited the export of unsafe remainders of the rich nations to the poor males, such as the destined a single to the recycling, but its application has shown several lagoons. "Greenpeace has noticed boats that leave from Holland for China, loaded of electronic remainders", says Choi. And many arrive at Guiyu. Of return to ‘ 1st mundó In between the everyday workings she is the a single to disarm plates mother in a homemade coal small furnace in search of coveted the Chips, that include gold. Or also to fuse the housings of the computer systems to transform toxic PVC into pieces that are destined to objects that, peculiarly, return to finish in the western globe: the plastic flowers. Each year the planet generates between 20 and 50 million tons of electronic remainders, in agreement with information of the System of Nations United for the Indicates Ambiente:el 80% finish in Asia and from that percentage 90% arrive at China. Though Guiyu is most famous, is other garbage dumps of this kind in Longtan and Tali, also in Corner, Taizhou (province of Zhejiang) and in the Hunan neighbor, according to alert KNOWS it. Even though most of the remainders they come from the rich countries, Chinese generates each year 1.1 million tons, a number that is multiplied as it increases the common of life. "In the suburbs of cities as Beijing or Tianjin are small committed shacks to disarm electronic objects that finish in Guiyu", it emphasizes Choi. The Government research a law project so that the producers of computers, tv sets, refrigerators, washing machines and conditioneds air Chinese take duty to recycle their goods. That measurement responds to requests of the ecologists, who think about that they are the makers whom they have to assume the responsibility by his items. Nonetheless, they say, will be definitive remedy with no passages like the dice no the year last via the European Union: to prohibit the use of lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalente chromium, policromados bifenilos and ether of bifenilo policromado in the electronic devices. Hake produced me reflect on this topic: www.flickr.com/photographs/hake/415111783/?#comment72157594578...
No reconnaissance aircraft in history has operated globally in more hostile airspace or with such full impunity than the SR-71, the world’s fastest jet-propelled aircraft. The Blackbird’s overall performance and operational achievements placed it at the pinnacle of aviation technologies developments for the duration of the Cold War.
This Blackbird accrued about two,800 hours of flight time for the duration of 24 years of active service with the U.S. Air Force. On its final flight, March six, 1990, Lt. Col. Ed Yielding and Lt. Col. Joseph Vida set a speed record by flying from Los Angeles to Washington, D.C., in 1 hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging three,418 kilometers (2,124 miles) per hour. At the flight’s conclusion, they landed at Washington-Dulles International Airport and turned the airplane more than to the Smithsonian.
Transferred from the United States Air Force.
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation
Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson
Nation of Origin:
United States of America
All round: 18ft five 15/16in. x 55ft 7in. x 107ft 5in., 169998.5lb. (5.638m x 16.942m x 32.741m, 77110.8kg)
Other: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 107ft 5in. x 55ft 7in. (5.638m x 32.741m x 16.942m)
Twin-engine, two-seat, supersonic strategic reconnaissance aircraft airframe constructed largley of titanium and its alloys vertical tail fins are constructed of a composite (laminated plastic-sort material) to minimize radar cross-section Pratt and Whitney J58 (JT11D-20B) turbojet engines feature massive inlet shock cones.
No reconnaissance aircraft in history has operated in a lot more hostile airspace or with such full impunity than the SR-71 Blackbird. It is the quickest aircraft propelled by air-breathing engines. The Blackbird’s efficiency and operational achievements placed it at the pinnacle of aviation technologies developments throughout the Cold War. The airplane was conceived when tensions with communist Eastern Europe reached levels approaching a full-blown crisis in the mid-1950s. U.S. military commanders desperately required accurate assessments of Soviet worldwide military deployments, particularly near the Iron Curtain. Lockheed Aircraft Corporation’s subsonic U-two (see NASM collection) reconnaissance aircraft was an in a position platform but the U. S. Air Force recognized that this reasonably slow aircraft was currently vulnerable to Soviet interceptors. They also understood that the fast improvement of surface-to-air missile systems could place U-2 pilots at grave danger. The danger proved reality when a U-2 was shot down by a surface to air missile more than the Soviet Union in 1960.
Lockheed’s very first proposal for a new higher speed, higher altitude, reconnaissance aircraft, to be capable of avoiding interceptors and missiles, centered on a design and style propelled by liquid hydrogen. This proved to be impracticable due to the fact of considerable fuel consumption. Lockheed then reconfigured the style for standard fuels. This was feasible and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), already flying the Lockheed U-2, issued a production contract for an aircraft designated the A-12. Lockheed’s clandestine ‘Skunk Works’ division (headed by the gifted design and style engineer Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson) made the A-12 to cruise at Mach 3.two and fly nicely above 18,288 m (60,000 feet). To meet these difficult needs, Lockheed engineers overcame a lot of daunting technical challenges. Flying far more than three times the speed of sound generates 316° C (600° F) temperatures on external aircraft surfaces, which are sufficient to melt standard aluminum airframes. The design team chose to make the jet’s external skin of titanium alloy to which shielded the internal aluminum airframe. Two standard, but really potent, afterburning turbine engines propelled this remarkable aircraft. These energy plants had to operate across a massive speed envelope in flight, from a takeoff speed of 334 kph (207 mph) to a lot more than 3,540 kph (two,200 mph). To avoid supersonic shock waves from moving inside the engine intake causing flameouts, Johnson’s group had to design and style a complicated air intake and bypass technique for the engines.
Skunk Works engineers also optimized the A-12 cross-section style to exhibit a low radar profile. Lockheed hoped to attain this by cautiously shaping the airframe to reflect as tiny transmitted radar energy (radio waves) as possible, and by application of special paint made to absorb, rather than reflect, those waves. This remedy became a single of the 1st applications of stealth technology, but it never ever entirely met the design and style ambitions.
Test pilot Lou Schalk flew the single-seat A-12 on April 24, 1962, soon after he became airborne accidentally in the course of high-speed taxi trials. The airplane showed great guarantee but it needed considerable technical refinement ahead of the CIA could fly the initial operational sortie on Might 31, 1967 – a surveillance flight more than North Vietnam. A-12s, flown by CIA pilots, operated as portion of the Air Force’s 1129th Specific Activities Squadron beneath the "Oxcart" plan. Even though Lockheed continued to refine the A-12, the U. S. Air Force ordered an interceptor version of the aircraft designated the YF-12A. The Skunk Functions, nonetheless, proposed a "specific mission" version configured to conduct post-nuclear strike reconnaissance. This method evolved into the USAF’s familiar SR-71.
Lockheed built fifteen A-12s, like a unique two-seat trainer version. Two A-12s were modified to carry a particular reconnaissance drone, designated D-21. The modified A-12s were redesignated M-21s. These were created to take off with the D-21 drone, powered by a Marquart ramjet engine mounted on a pylon between the rudders. The M-21 then hauled the drone aloft and launched it at speeds high sufficient to ignite the drone’s ramjet motor. Lockheed also built three YF-12As but this sort in no way went into production. Two of the YF-12As crashed for the duration of testing. Only 1 survives and is on show at the USAF Museum in Dayton, Ohio. The aft section of one of the "written off" YF-12As which was later used along with an SR-71A static test airframe to manufacture the sole SR-71C trainer. A single SR-71 was lent to NASA and designated YF-12C. Such as the SR-71C and two SR-71B pilot trainers, Lockheed constructed thirty-two Blackbirds. The very first SR-71 flew on December 22, 1964. Because of intense operational costs, military strategists decided that the more capable USAF SR-71s should replace the CIA’s A-12s. These had been retired in 1968 soon after only 1 year of operational missions, largely more than southeast Asia. The Air Force’s 1st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron (element of the 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing) took over the missions, flying the SR-71 starting in the spring of 1968.
Right after the Air Force started to operate the SR-71, it acquired the official name Blackbird– for the unique black paint that covered the airplane. This paint was formulated to absorb radar signals, to radiate some of the tremendous airframe heat generated by air friction, and to camouflage the aircraft against the dark sky at higher altitudes.
Knowledge gained from the A-12 system convinced the Air Force that flying the SR-71 safely essential two crew members, a pilot and a Reconnaissance Systems Officer (RSO). The RSO operated with the wide array of monitoring and defensive systems installed on the airplane. This gear integrated a sophisticated Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) method that could jam most acquisition and targeting radar. In addition to an array of advanced, higher-resolution cameras, the aircraft could also carry gear created to record the strength, frequency, and wavelength of signals emitted by communications and sensor devices such as radar. The SR-71 was created to fly deep into hostile territory, avoiding interception with its tremendous speed and higher altitude. It could operate safely at a maximum speed of Mach three.3 at an altitude much more than sixteen miles, or 25,908 m (85,000 ft), above the earth. The crew had to put on stress suits similar to these worn by astronauts. These suits were required to safeguard the crew in the event of sudden cabin stress loss even though at operating altitudes.
To climb and cruise at supersonic speeds, the Blackbird’s Pratt & Whitney J-58 engines had been created to operate constantly in afterburner. Even though this would appear to dictate higher fuel flows, the Blackbird truly achieved its ideal "gas mileage," in terms of air nautical miles per pound of fuel burned, throughout the Mach three+ cruise. A typical Blackbird reconnaissance flight may possibly need numerous aerial refueling operations from an airborne tanker. Every single time the SR-71 refueled, the crew had to descend to the tanker’s altitude, normally about 6,000 m to 9,000 m (20,000 to 30,000 ft), and slow the airplane to subsonic speeds. As velocity decreased, so did frictional heat. This cooling effect caused the aircraft’s skin panels to shrink considerably, and these covering the fuel tanks contracted so significantly that fuel leaked, forming a distinctive vapor trail as the tanker topped off the Blackbird. As quickly as the tanks were filled, the jet’s crew disconnected from the tanker, relit the afterburners, and once more climbed to higher altitude.
Air Force pilots flew the SR-71 from Kadena AB, Japan, all through its operational career but other bases hosted Blackbird operations, as well. The 9th SRW occasionally deployed from Beale AFB, California, to other places to carryout operational missions. Cuban missions were flown straight from Beale. The SR-71 did not commence to operate in Europe till 1974, and then only temporarily. In 1982, when the U.S. Air Force primarily based two aircraft at Royal Air Force Base Mildenhall to fly monitoring mission in Eastern Europe.
When the SR-71 became operational, orbiting reconnaissance satellites had currently replaced manned aircraft to gather intelligence from web sites deep within Soviet territory. Satellites could not cover each geopolitical hotspot so the Blackbird remained a important tool for worldwide intelligence gathering. On many occasions, pilots and RSOs flying the SR-71 offered details that proved vital in formulating successful U. S. foreign policy. Blackbird crews offered critical intelligence about the 1973 Yom Kippur War, the Israeli invasion of Lebanon and its aftermath, and pre- and post-strike imagery of the 1986 raid conducted by American air forces on Libya. In 1987, Kadena-primarily based SR-71 crews flew a number of missions more than the Persian Gulf, revealing Iranian Silkworm missile batteries that threatened industrial shipping and American escort vessels.
As the overall performance of space-based surveillance systems grew, along with the effectiveness of ground-primarily based air defense networks, the Air Force began to lose enthusiasm for the pricey program and the 9th SRW ceased SR-71 operations in January 1990. Despite protests by military leaders, Congress revived the system in 1995. Continued wrangling over operating budgets, nevertheless, quickly led to final termination. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration retained two SR-71As and the one particular SR-71B for higher-speed study projects and flew these airplanes till 1999.
On March six, 1990, the service profession of 1 Lockheed SR-71A Blackbird ended with a record-setting flight. This particular airplane bore Air Force serial number 64-17972. Lt. Col. Ed Yeilding and his RSO, Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Vida, flew this aircraft from Los Angeles to Washington D.C. in 1 hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging a speed of 3,418 kph (2,124 mph). At the conclusion of the flight, ‘972 landed at Dulles International Airport and taxied into the custody of the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum. At that time, Lt. Col. Vida had logged 1,392.7 hours of flight time in Blackbirds, a lot more than that of any other crewman.
This certain SR-71 was also flown by Tom Alison, a former National Air and Space Museum’s Chief of Collections Management. Flying with Detachment 1 at Kadena Air Force Base, Okinawa, Alison logged far more than a dozen ‘972 operational sorties. The aircraft spent twenty-4 years in active Air Force service and accrued a total of two,801.1 hours of flight time.
Weight: 170,000 Lbs
Reference and Additional Reading:
Crickmore, Paul F. Lockheed SR-71: The Secret Missions Exposed. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 1996.
Francillon, Rene J. Lockheed Aircraft Considering that 1913. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1987.
Johnson, Clarence L. Kelly: More Than My Share of It All. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985.
Miller, Jay. Lockheed Martin’s Skunk Functions. Leicester, U.K.: Midland Counties Publishing Ltd., 1995.
Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird curatorial file, Aeronautics Division, National Air and Space Museum.