Cool Mold Chinese images

Cool Mold Chinese images

A few nice mold chinese images I found:

BK0021Y-Antique-Chinese-Ming-Cabinet
mold chinese
Image by Silk Road Collection
"The cabinet is designed in the classic Ming style-sleek, simple, and graceful. The medium-brown finish reveals the rosewood grains beautifully. The doors are attached by traditional wooden pegs. The molding and the legs are rounded and the front leg spandrels are slightly curved. Inside the cabinet are two ""finished"" storage areas and two drawers. The hardware is brass.
Two of these cabinets are currently available but can be sold separately. Price listed is for each cabinet."

Grass Mud Horse – a Maquette for Ai WeiWei
mold chinese
Image by melter
one finger salute from an empty Chinese handcuff. Cast iron base cast in green sand at Ox-bow in 2007, aluminum "finger" cast in 2012. Finger was cast in a burn out mold, using a bamboo Chinese handcuff (finger trap). You are only trapped if you resist in the way expected.

Leamington Spa Station – bridge on High Street in Leamington – Jordans Fireworks
mold chinese
Image by ell brown
This is Leamington Spa Station in Warwickshire.

I got here on a Chiltern Railways train from Solihull.

Was lucky that I had blue skys in Leamington, especially for an October day (have been having many blue sky days in October 2011).

The current Art Deco building was opened in 1939.

And is Grade II listed.

It was opened by the Great Western Railway to replace the original building of 1852.

The building was restored by 2008 by Chiltern Railways.

Grade II listing Leamington Spa Station, Including Attached Platform Structures, Royal Leamington Spa – British Listed Buildings

Main line station 1939 for Great Western Railway. Steel-framed sheathed in brick; faced with Portland stone above polished granite plinth; brick to rear/platform elevations. Flat roofs with parapet. Wooden sashes with stone architraves. Platform canopies steel girders with cast iron columns. Art Deco neo-classical style.
EXTERIOR: To forecourt, ENTRANCE RANGE of 3 storeys and 9 bays, LEFT RANGE of 2 storeys and 14 bays, and single storey RIGHT RANGE. ENTRANCE RANGE has advanced ground floor with granite plinth, rusticated Portland stone, and parapet. Main entrance has granite architrave, pair of glazed doors with side- and over-lights, horizontal mullions and ‘ENTRANCE’ in metal lettering flanked by three 6-over-9 sashes, all under glazed canopy. Above this, 5-part facade has central 3 bays defined by shallow pilasters with stepped vertical detailing, flanked by slightly taller and advanced single bay, then double end bays; all with 6-over-9 pane sashes to 1st floor, 3-over-6 pane sashes to 2nd floor, and projecting stepped cornice below parapet. ‘LEAMINGTON SPA STATION’ in sans serif lettering to parapet over central 3 bays. To right, single recessed bay blank above entrance. RIGHT RANGE has 1-storey subway entrance with 3 wide openings outlined in polished granite under 3 blind panels, inside walls canted to subway passage. LEFT RANGE has parapet roof above flat cornice, banded string course, and continuous polished granite plinth. Central bay advanced slightly with pair of 4-over-6 pane sashes above entrance with granite architrave. Two 6-over-9 sashes to otherwise mostly blank first floor, and 6-over-9 sashes to ground floor with secondary entrances to each end also within granite architraves. Far left is advanced with similar windows and door on return. Return elevations stone with brick to rear/platforms. INTERIOR: Booking Hall and subway tiled above granite plinth. Stairs to each platform with stick metal balusters, some wavy, and wooden handrails. Balustrade and newels at platform level have circular and wavy details.
PLATFORMS: 2 primary platforms ‘Down’ and ‘Up’ (to London), and 2 shorter platforms for stabling trains. The linear platform buildings have brick walls with granite plinth and cantilevered canopies edged with bargeboards and framed with steel girders springing from stone pilasters and stepped corbel blocks. Platform extends beyond the buildings where canopies are supported by paired cast-iron columns. Down platform has former telegraph room with wooden and glazed panelled entrance, waiting room, buffet, lavatories. Up platform has waiting room and service rooms. Wood framed glazed doors with metal mullions, handles and curved bars in a Deco style. Waiting rooms finished with wood architraves to doors and fixed pane with overlight windows to platforms, blocked fireplaces, coved and beamed ceilings, and fixed wooden bench seating. Buffet fully panelled with polished walnut, continuous bar similarly panelled below moulded edge, back bar; fireplace to north with mirror and panelled overmantle and fluted band to top. Lavatories with wooden doors and stone Deco style fireplaces. Some original benches with ‘GWR’ scrolled in supports on platforms.
HISTORY: This station replaced the 1853 Brunel station that was demolished in 1935, which had in turn replaced the large Georgian Eastnor Terrace.
SOURCES: Great Western Railway Magazine July 1937, December 1937, March 1940.
Royal Leamington Spa courier Nov. 13, 1936.

Took these as I was leaving Leamington.

Railway bridges under the station.

I would have got this bridge first, but I earlier went down Lower Avenue, so got it on the way back to the station.

Bridge on High Street in Leamington

Also passing under is Bath Street and Clemens Street.

A quick shot of Jordans Fireworks – not to long until this years Fireworks Night.

They sell Chinese Flying Lanterns and other fireworks types.

Cool Mold Makers China images

Cool Mold Makers China images

Check out these mold makers china images:

2017-08-04_2122i_chemher
mold makers china
Image by lblanchard
It’s a hard-knock life (for stuff)
What did the bookworm say to the library? It’s been nice gnawing you!

Okay, we admit: there’s nothing funny about destructive insects. Museums and libraries work hard to prevent pests from settling in — one reason why there’s no food and drink allowed in galleries.

You can see a latticework of holes in these encyclopedia volumes from Denis Diderot’s Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des metiers (Encyclopaedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), published around 1780. These books were chomped by tunneling pests long before they came to our library. What we call "bookworms" can actually be one of several types of moths, beetles, or lice. They bore through leather and cloth bindings, or feed on the microscopic molds and fungi that grow inside books after exposure to moisture. In early modern China, some book-makers treated pages with arsenic to repel damaging insects. Today, infested collections may be treated with fumigation, but many conservators prefer to de-louse books using extreme temperatures — like freezing — rather than harsh chemicals.

Things Fall Apart: Exhibition at the Chemical Heritage Foundation Museum

Cool Rook Rifle images

Cool Rook Rifle images

A few nice rook rifle images I found:

Image from page 178 of “Thrilling stories of the Great War on land and sea, in the air, under the water” (1915)
rook rifle
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: thrillingstories00mars
Title: Thrilling stories of the Great War on land and sea, in the air, under the water
Year: 1915 (1910s)
Authors: Marshall, Logan Parker, Gilbert, 1862-1932 Thompson, Vance, 1863-1925 Gibbs, Philip, 1877-1962
Subjects: World War, 1914-1918 World War, 1914-1918
Publisher: [Philadelphia, Pa.?] : [s.n.]

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~£ .3 g o.{5.S THE UNSPEAKABLE ATROCITIES was in the neighborhood. The German ran there tofetch her, dragged her back to the chateau and led herto the attic; then, having completely undressed her,he tried to violate her. At this moment M. X., wishingto protect her, fired revolver shots on the staircase andwas immediately shot. The non-commissioned officer then made Mme. X.come out of theattic, obliged herto step over thecorpse of the oldman, and led herto a closet, wherehe again made twounsuccessful at-tempts upon her.Leaving her atlast, he threw him-self upon Mile. Y.,having first handedMme. Z. over totwo soldiers, who,after having vio-lated her, one onceand the other twice, in the dead mans room, made her pass the nightin a barn near them, where one of them twice againhad sexual connection with her. As for Mile. Y., she was obliged by threats of beingshot, to strip herself completely naked and lie on amattress with the non-commissioned officer, who kepther there until morning. 153

Text Appearing After Image:
At Least They Only Drown YotjbWomen. THE UNSPEAKABLE ATROCITIES It is generally believed at Coulommiers thatcriminal attempts have been made on many womenof that town, but only one crime of this nature hasbeen proved for certain. A charwoman, Mme. X.,was the victim. A soldier came to her house on the 6thof September, toward 9.30 in the evening, and sentaway her husband to go and search for one of hiscomrades in the street. Then, in spite of the fact thattwo small children were present, he tried to rape theyoung woman. X., when he heard his wifes cries,rushed back, but was driven off with blows of thebutt of the mans rifle into a neighboring room, of whichthe door was left open, and his wife was forced to sufferthe consummation of the outrage. The rape rook placealmost under the eyes of the husband, who, beingterrorized, did not dare to intervene, and used hisefforts only to calm the terror of his children. ARSON AND MURDER RAMPANT Personal liberty, like human life, is the object ofcom

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2013 All-Army Marksmanship_002
rook rifle
Image by North Dakota National Guard
The North Dakota National Guard’s Marksmanship Team poses with its plaque after earning third place out of all marksmanship teams in the entire U.S. Army at the U.S. Army Marksmanship Unit’s U.S. Small Arms Championship, or “All-Army” competition, in Fort Benning, Ga., Jan. 28-Feb. 8, 2013. Pictured from left are Sgt. 1st Class Gary Varberg, coach, Master Sgt. Brian Rook, Sgt. Evan Messer, Spc. Tyrel Hoppe, Spc. Christopher Lundberg and Tech. Sgt. Joshua Von Bank, coach. Rook and Von Bank serve in the North Dakota Air National Guard’s 119th Wing, Fargo, and the remaining shooters serve in the North Dakota Army National Guard’s 817th Engineer Company (Sapper), Jamestown. (Courtesy photo)

For more on the North Dakota National Guard, check out:
Website: www.ndguard.ngb.army.mil
Facebook: www.facebook.com/NDNationalGuard
YouTube: www.youtube.com/NDNationalGuard
Twitter: www.twitter.com/NDNationalGuard

Copyright information: www.ndguard.ngb.army.mil/news/pressroom/Pages/Copyright.aspx

Cool Mould Manufacturing Factory images

Cool Mould Manufacturing Factory images

Some cool mould manufacturing factory images:

Image from page 47 of “Rubber hand stamps and the manipulation of rubber; a practical treatise on the manufacture of India rubber hand stamps, small articles of India rubber, the hektograph, special inks, cements, and allied subjects” (1891)
mould manufacturing factory
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: rubberhandstamps01sloa
Title: Rubber hand stamps and the manipulation of rubber; a practical treatise on the manufacture of India rubber hand stamps, small articles of India rubber, the hektograph, special inks, cements, and allied subjects
Year: 1891 (1890s)
Authors: Sloane, T. O’Conor (Thomas O’Conor), 1851-1940
Subjects: Hand stamps Rubber
Publisher: New York, N. W. Henley & Co.
Contributing Library: The Library of Congress
Digitizing Sponsor: Sloan Foundation

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anized product. Sheet rubber is made as above;is vulcanized by some of the absorption processesdescribed in the chapter on vulcaniza-tion. We now come to the second product: regularlymixed and cured rubber. Its starting point isthe washed India rubber from the washer andsheeter. We have seen that the ^^ure gum or caoutchouc isvery sensitive to changes of temperature. At thefreezing point of water it is hard and rigid, and at 42 RUBBER HAND STAMP MAKING the boiling point is like putty in consistency.There are several substances wliich can be made tocombine with the gum and which remove from itthis susceptibility to change of temperature. Theprocess of effecting this combination is called vul-canization, and the product is called vulcanizedindia rubber. Sulphur is the agent most generallyemployed. In the factory the normal vulcanization is carriedout in two steps, mixing and curing. The washedsheet india rubber which has not been masticatedand which must be perfectly dry is the starting

Text Appearing After Image:
Making i^Iixed Ritbber. point, andtlie mixing rolls sliown in the cuts are themechanism for carrying out the first step. Theseare a pair of powerful rollers which are geared so asto work like ordinary rolls, except that one revolves AND THE MANIPULATION OF RUBBER. 43 about three times as fast as the other. They areheated by steam, which is introduced inside ofthem. The sheet is first passed through them afew times to secure its softness, and then the opera-tive begins to sprinkle sulphur upon it as it entersthe rolls. This is continued, the rubber passing andrepassing until perfect incorporation is secured.About ten per cent, of sulphur is added, and a work-man can take care of thirty pounds at a time. This material is incompletely vulcanized. It isin its present condition very amenable to heat andis ready for any moulding process. Generally it isrolled out or ^^ calendered into sheets of differentthickness from which articles are made in mouldsby curing. These sheets are of especial

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Image from page 413 of “Canadian foundryman (1921)” (1921)
mould manufacturing factory
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: canfoundryman1921toro
Title: Canadian foundryman (1921)
Year: 1921 (1920s)
Authors:
Subjects: Foundries Foundry workers
Publisher: Toronto : MacLean Pub. Co
Contributing Library: Fisher – University of Toronto
Digitizing Sponsor: University of Toronto

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supplies.Our lines com-prise the highestgrade equipmentobtainable any-where. You Cant Afford to Overlook theseMoney Saving Opportunities We are offering you at prices beyond comparison the high-est grade Foundry Equipment obtainable anywhere. If youare wide awake for real values investigate these lines. Get Our Prices on Ladle Bowls and Shanks.Steel Bands Steel Slip-over Jackets.Steel Core Plates.Wooden Snap Flasks. Youll find longer servicein our flat bottom steelladle bowls. These bowlscome in capacities from 50to 800 lbs. Dont shove this oppor-tunity aside. Write atonce for Prices and liberalDiscounts. All Steel Core Ovens Thes* core ovens have nocast parts to break. Extrasmoke pipe connection takesexcess smoke away. Alldoors have Battle Plate toreduce heat loss when door isopen. pAMP pROS Tote Box, Barrels, etc.All-Steel Core Ovens. Manufacturing and Welding Co. We can supply AluminumPattern Plates in any size. 825 DUPONT STREET, TORONTO, ONTARIO 26 CANADIAN FOUNDRYMAN Volume XII

Text Appearing After Image:
Heres the history of this jobin a jobbing foundry beforeand after machine-moulding:- Weight, 275 pounds.Flask (inside). 42 x 33 x 24 high. Before Mounting—One man put up4 moulds in 7 hours After Mounting— 4 men and one No. machine put up 45 moulds in 7 hours. 435 Labor Required For moulding, coring, closingand pouring each moudBefore—2V* man-hours.After—8-10ths man-hrs. Cost of Mounting Pattern,including labor andmaterials, .00. Labor Cost reduced 62 M: /<. Cost of Pattern Mounting saved on the first 28moulds. Reducing costs to meet1921 requirements J7CONOMY in productionis the keynote of 1921 man-ufacturing and selling prob-lems. Extravagant produc-tion costs can no longer bepassed on to a helpless con-sumer. Machine-molding must be util-ized wherever possible in orderthat selling prices will seemreasonable to buyers.The Osborn Manufacturing Company INCORPORATED Main Office and Factory 5401 Hamilton Ave. Cleveland, Ohio New York San Francisco

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Cool Moldings Equipment China images

Cool Moldings Equipment China images

Check out these moldings equipment china images:

Image from page 349 of “How to paint : an instruction book with full description of all the materials necessary.” (1894)
moldings equipment china
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: howtopaintinstru00asal
Title: How to paint : an instruction book with full description of all the materials necessary.
Year: 1894 (1890s)
Authors: A.S. Aloe Company.
Subjects: Artists’ materials–Catalogs Painting–Technique Fountain pens–Catalogs Pyrography–Equipment and supplies–Catalogs China painting–Equipment and supplies–Catalogs Trade catalogs–Artists’ materials Trade catalogs–Fountain pens Trade catalogs–Pyrography–Equipment and supplies Trade catalogs–China painting–Equipment and supplies.
Publisher: A.S. Aloe Company, St. Louis
Contributing Library: Winterthur Museum Library
Digitizing Sponsor: Lyrasis Members and Sloan Foundation

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Color Preservingf Medium Indelible Fabric Paintingr The only Medium yet discovered by wliichpainting with oil colors can be done on silk,linen or cotton cloth, rendering the fabric softand pliable and 3et indelible and unfadingwhen laundered. Useful in decorating dresses,bed spreads and shams, curtains, draperies,table linen, dojlies, etc. If in place of turpentine the Medium isused in painting on bolting cloth, the workwill be transparent, yet unfading, and canbe easily washed. Each bottle contains 4 ozs.and will paint a large amount of surface. BERLIN CHEMICAL CO., Mgrs.. BERLIN, WIS. H. A. HYATT, MANUFACTURER, IMPORTER ANDDEALER IN Photographic Supplies, ARTISTS MATERIALS. PICTURE FRAMES, MOULDINGS,ALBUMS, ETC. N. E. Cor. Eighth and Locust Streets, St. Louis, Mo.

Text Appearing After Image:
Family Medicine Chest, S5.OO. It contains thirty vials, two drachms each,of the principal remedies, such as are usedin simple cases of Colds, Coughs, Headache,Diarrhoea, Childrens Troubles, etc. The J2.00 Case contains twelve vials, twodrachms each, including a Practical Guide toHomoeopathy. The 1^1.00 Case contains twelve vials, onedrachm each. Libera! Discount to Physicians and Druggists. FOR SALE BY HENRY R. LUYTIES, Manufacturing Homceopathic Druggist, 2i8 Pine Street, ST. LOUIS, MO. HOW TO PAINT. 343

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Cool Mold Products images

Cool Mold Products images

A few nice mold products images I found:

Two free splicing blocks with each reel!
mold products
Image by Carbon Arc
Kodak 7-inch (17.8cm) tape reel, early 1960s. Along their well-known photographic and motion-picture products, Eastman Kodak also manufactured recording tape and tape reels.

One distinguishing feature of their tape reels was a splicing block molded into each side of the reel. Using special splicing tape and a single-edged razor blade according to instructions printed inside the box, hobbyists could splice their own tape the same way professionals did.

Cool Mold Chinese images

Cool Mold Chinese images

A few nice mold chinese images I found:

2016 – China – Beijing – Cloisonné – 1 of 5
mold chinese
Image by Ted’s photos – For Me & You
After we left the Badaling Great Wall we went to a cloisonné factory, shop and restaurant for lunch. After lunch we wandered around the shop and factory.

Cloisonné is colourful handicraft articles made by a complex manufacturing process. It includes inlaying thin gold threads or copper wires into various patterns, hammering the base, inlaying copper strips, soldering, filling with enamel, firing the enamel, polishing, gilding and adhering enamels of various colors to copper molds.

Introduced into the Middle Kingdom in the 13th century, this technique became a typically Chinese art. The technique remains common in China to the present day

Jardin Royal Chinese Restaurant Newbridge – County Kildare (Ireland)
mold chinese
Image by infomatique
Newbridge is a town in County Kildare, Ireland. Its population of 21,561 (2011 Census) making it the largest town in County Kildare and the 15th. largest in Ireland.

The town is located on the banks of the River Liffey, which provides a range of natural amenities. Upriver are towns such as Athgarvan, Kilcullen and Blessington, while downriver are the towns of Caragh, Clane and Celbridge.

Newbridge is bounded by the Curragh Plains to the west, Pollardstown Fen and the Bog of Allen and Moulds Bog to the north west. Around the Curragh, and to the east are many important stud farms.

To the south the motorway now forms a boundary to the town.

Today Newbridge is a thriving town with a population approaching 21,661, a major centre for industry and commerce, within the South Kildare region.

Cool Pipe Fitting Moulding Design images

Cool Pipe Fitting Moulding Design images

A few nice pipe fitting moulding design images I found:

Image from page 48 of “Morton memorial; a history of the Stevens institute of technology, with biographies of the trustees, faculty, and alumni, and a record of the achievements of the Stevens family of engineers” (1905)
pipe fitting moulding design
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: mortonmemorialhi00furm
Title: Morton memorial; a history of the Stevens institute of technology, with biographies of the trustees, faculty, and alumni, and a record of the achievements of the Stevens family of engineers
Year: 1905 (1900s)
Authors: Furman, Franklin De Ronde, 1870- ed
Subjects: Stevens family Morton, Henry, 1836-1902 Stevens Institute of Technology
Publisher: Hoboken, N.J., Stevens institute of technology
Contributing Library: The Library of Congress
Digitizing Sponsor: The Library of Congress

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For a number of years previous to 1881 the shop-work course was arrangedso that, after a prescribed set of exercises in carpenter-work and wood-turning,millwrighting and steam-fitting, machinist-work, blacksmithing, molding, found-ing, and pattern-making had been performed by a class, the students were permit-ted to complete the course by constructing some machine. Thus the Class of 1876 built a Thurston autographic testing-machine. GROWTH OF THE INSTITUTE 19 several important features of the design having been previously planned in thedrawing-room. The Class of 1877 built a lubricant testing-machine. A part of the Class of 1878 assisted in the design and construction of alarge oil-tester, while other portions of the class designed and constructed a Pronydynamometer, a small horizontal engine, and a small oscillating engine. The Class of 1879 built an autographic transmitting dynamometer. The Class of 1880 assisted in the construction of a 3 V2-horse-power com-pound condensing engine.

Text Appearing After Image:
Ground Floor of the Carnegie Laboratory of Engineering The construction of a machine as a final exercise in the shop was there-after discontinued. Subsequent classes devoted the time which had been sospent to the performance of more extended series of exercises in the variousbranches of the shop course. About the time this change took effect, the shop course was also consid-erably extended, and a course in experimental mechanics inaugurated. This course included, as then planned, a series of sixteen experimentalexercises comprising, among others, a test of the evaporative power of boilers; 20 THE STEVENS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY experimental determination of the total heat of combustion of coal used in boilertests, and comparison of this heat with that computed from the analysis of thecoal; measurement of the friction of steam flowing through pipes; comparison ofefficiency of steam pump and injector. Order of Exercises in Experimental Mechanics, Class of 1902 Supplementary Term, June a

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Cool Mould Manufacturing Factory images

Check out these mould manufacturing factory images:

Mould making/ Die-casting/ Precision stamping/ Machining parts/CNC Precision Parts Manufacturing与您共享了 相册。
mould manufacturing factory
Image by ccrweb
Dear Sir/Ms,

Good day!
As an ISO certified factory, we specialized manufacture Mould making/ Sheet
metal process/ Die-casting/ Precision stamping/ Machining parts, with
strong competitive price and excellent quality, for more than 20 years.
Any questions and enquiries will be highly regarded. Just email us the
drawing and detailed requirement, you will get a complete quotation with
technical analysis within 24 hours.

Your prompt reply is highly appreciated.

Best regards sincerely!

Michael

Cool Plastic Molded Part images

Cool Plastic Molded Part images

A few nice plastic molded part images I found:

Printing the past: 3-D archaeology and the first Americans
plastic molded part
Image by BLMOregon
Photos were captured at the Pacific Slope Archaeological Laboratory on the Oregon State University Campus in Corvallis, Dec. 13, 2016, to accompany the feature story below: "Printing the past: 3-D archaeology and the first Americans." Article online here (and below): goo.gl/viKEZF

Photo by Matt Christenson, BLM
Story by Toshio Suzuki, BLM

—————————————-

For the first Americans, and the study of them today, it all starts with a point.

A sharp point fastened to a wooden shaft gave the hunter 13,000 years ago a weapon that could single-handedly spear a fish or work in numbers to take down a mammoth.

For a prehistoric human, these points were the difference between life and death. They were hunger-driven, handmade labors of love that took hours to craft using a cacophony of rock-on-rock cracks, thuds and shatters.

They have been called the first American invention, and some archaeologists now think 3-D scanning points can reveal more information about both the technology and the people.

The Pacific Slope Archaeological Laboratory at Oregon State University takes up only a few rooms on the ground floor of Waldo Hall, one of the supposedly haunted buildings on campus.

There are boxes of cultural history everywhere, and floor-to-ceiling wood cabinets with skinny pull-out drawers housing even more assets, but the really good stuff, evidence of the earliest known cultures in North America, lives in an 800-pound gun safe.

Loren Davis, anthropology professor at OSU and director of the lab, thinks 3-D scanning, printing, and publishing can circumvent the old traditions of the field, that artifacts are only to be experienced in museums and only handled by those who have a Ph.D.

“We are reimagining the idea of doing archaeology in a 21st century digital way,” said Davis. “We don’t do it just to make pretty pictures or print in plastic, we mostly want to capture and share it for analysis,” he added.

Nearby in the L-shaped lab, one of his doctoral students is preparing to scan a point that was discovered on Bureau of Land Management public lands in southeast Oregon.

Thousands of points have been unearthed since the 1930s in North America, the first being in eastern New Mexico near a town called Clovis. That name is now known worldwide as representing the continent’s first native people.

More recently, though, other peoples with distinctive points were found elsewhere, and some researchers think it means there was differing technology being made at the same time, if not pre-Clovis.

One such location is the Paisley Caves in southern Oregon ― one of the many archaeologically significant sites managed by the BLM.

The earliest stem point from Paisley Caves was scanned at Davis’ lab and a 3-D PDF was included in a 2012 multi-authored report in the journal Science.

Davis estimates his lab at OSU has scanned as many as 400 points, including others from BLM-managed lands in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon and Washington.

More scans would mean a bigger database for comparing points and determining what style they are.

“Ideally, we want to get as many artifacts scanned as possible,“ said Davis. “The BLM offers a lot of access to public data ― this is just another way of doing it.”

Transforming a brittle piece of volcanic glass, by hand, into a beautiful and deadly 4-inch-long spear point is a process.

In one hand would be a hard shaping rock, or maybe a thick section of antler, and in the other would be the starter stone, which in addition to igneous could be jasper, chert, or any other chippable rock that creates a hide-puncturing level of sharpness.

After what might be hundreds of controlled strokes and rock rotations, the rough shape of a lance or spear tip would take form. Discarded shards of stone would often result in more points, or other useful tools like scrapers and needles.

Clovis points are distinguished by their length, bifacial leaf shape and middle channels on the bottom called flutes. Eventually the repetitive flaking of the point would stop, and the hunter would use precise pressure points to create the flute on one or each side that likely helped slot the finished product into a spear-like wooden pole.

The hunter was now mobile and ready to roam.

Prior to 3-D scanning, OSU doctoral student Sean Carroll picks up a can of Tinactin, gives it the obligatory shake, and completely covers “one of the oldest technologies in North America” with antifungal spray.

The talc and alcohol from the athlete’s foot remedy helps the software see even the slightest indents in the point, and it rubs right off afterwards.

“I want to scan all the Clovis I can get my hands on,” said Carroll, who came to OSU because of Davis’ 3-D lab and is using the medium as a big part of his dissertation.

Two random items, a power plug adapter and a ball of clay, are placed on each side of the fluted point to give the camera and light projector perspective. The objects create margins that force the structured light patterns to bend and capture more of the point’s surface detail.

Even so, like the hunter rotating the shaping rock, the archaeologist has to rotate the foam square holding the three items. Each scan takes about six seconds.

Carroll and Davis estimate that the learning curve for this process was about 100 hours. One hundred hours of trial and error — and a lot of watching YouTube videos — for a finished product that they think is indisputably worth it.

A completed 3-D scan of a point will have about 40,000 data points per square inch. The measurements are so precise, they can determine the difference between flake marks as thin as a piece of paper.

Davis says no archaeologist with a pair of calipers can come close to measuring the data obtained via 3-D, because simply, “there are some jobs that robots are really good at.”

“If the end game is measurements, well you could spend your whole life with a pair of calipers trying to achieve what we can do in 10 minutes,” said Davis.

Last year, the famous human relative nicknamed Lucy had 3-D scans of her 3.2 million year old bones published in the journal Nature.

In 2015, archaeologists from Harvard University completed a 3-D scan of a winged and human-headed stone bull from Mesopotamia that stands 13 feet high at the Louvre Museum.

And the Smithsonian Institution is currently beta testing a website dedicated to publishing 3-D models from its massive collection, including molds of President Abraham Lincoln’s face and the entire Apollo 11 command module.

All of these new-school efforts are based upon the old-school scientific principles of preservation and promotion.

Rock points, fossils, hieroglyphics — various forms of cultural assets are susceptible to environmental conditions and not guaranteed to be around forever. Three-dimensional scanning is the most accurate way to digitally preserve these items of merit.

Once accurate preservation is done, there are opportunities for promoting not just science, but specific research goals.

In the case of the Lucy bones, scientists hope that crowdsourcing the 3-D data will help get more experts to look at the fossils and prove that the tree-dwelling ape died from a fall.

When it comes to comparing one specific stemmed point to an entire hard drive of scanning data, BLM archaeologist Scott Thomas thinks the work being done at the OSU lab can move archaeology to a new level.

“The 3-D scanning method blows anything we have done out of the water,” said Thomas.

That ability to compare points can lead to insights on how these hunting tools moved over geography, and even expand theories about how native groups learned new technologies.

“It’s going to be a really powerful tool someday — not too far off,” said Thomas.

While long-term data analysis may not be the sexiest form of archaeology, holding a 3-D printed stem point is a pretty cool educational tool.

Davis of OSU has incorporated 3-D prints into his classes and said his students are able to make a tactile connection with artifacts that otherwise are not available.

“The students really enjoy these printed and digital models and often say that they are almost like the real thing,” said Davis.

This spring, Davis is traveling to Magadan, Russia — aka Siberia — to inspect and scan some points that may be linked to Clovis peoples.

The goal in Siberia, of course, is to further expand the 3-D database. He is specifically interested in comparing them to stems from a BLM-managed site he excavated in Idaho called Cooper’s Ferry.

As his student, Carroll, begins to clean up and put the scanned points into their individually labeled ziplocked bags, Davis can’t help but mention how much easier international research could be with 3-D scanning.

“You can share cultural resource info with people in other countries and you don’t have to come visit,” he said, adding that Russia isn’t the easiest country to enter.

“It’s as easy as sending an email,” Carroll agreed.

Davis then mentioned his 11-year-old child and how much of school curriculum these days is web-based as opposed to text-based.

“There’s nothing wrong with books, I’m a huge fan of books, but it’s a different way of learning,” said the archaeology professor.

And with that, he made another point.

— by Toshio Suzuki, tsuzuki@blm.gov, @toshjohn

Best places to find 3-D archaeology online:
— Sketchfab.com is one of the biggest databases on the web for 3-D models of cultural assets. Institutions and academics alike are moving priceless treasures to the digital space for all to inspect. Two examples: via the British Museum, a 7.25-ton statue of Ramesses II is available for viewing and free download; and via archaeologist Robert Selden Jr., hundreds of 3-D models are open to the public for study, including several Clovis points from the Blackwater Draw National Historic Site in New Mexico.
— The Smithsonian Institution is bringing the best of American history to a new audience via their 3-D website (3d.si.edu). Amelia Earhart’s flight suit? Check. Native American ceremonial killer whale hat? Check. Face cast of President Abraham Lincoln? Check and check — there are two. And their biggest 3-D scan is still coming: the 184-foot-long space shuttle Discovery.
— Visitors to Africanfossils.org can filter 3-D model searches by hominids, animals and tools, and also by date, from zero to 25 million years ago.
The sleek website, with partners like National Geographic and the National Museums of Kenya, makes it easy to download or share 3-D scans, and each item even comes with a discovery backstory and Google map pinpointing exactly where it was found.